English life and the development of English institutions-monarchy, Parliament, common law, the Church-from Roman Britain to 1660.

A political, social, economic, and cultural survey of the Mediterranean region from the fourth century to the fifteenth, focusing of the Byzantine Empire, the rise and spread of Islam, and relations between the European and Arab worlds.

The historical development of western institutions, ideas and cultures from antiquity to around 1500.

The historical development of western institutions, ideas and cultures from antiquity to around 1500.